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One was the formation of an independent union at the Far East Textile Company after a two-year effort discredited the former management-controlled union.

This was the first union that existed independently of the Kuomintang in Taiwan's post-war history although the Kuomintang retained a minority membership on its committee. Rather than prevailing upon the state to use martial law to smash the union, the management adopted the more cautious approach of buying workers' votes at election times.

However, such attempts repeatedly failed and, by , all of the elected leaders were genuine unionists. In the s, Taiwan had become an economic power, with a mature and diversified economy, solid presence in international markets and huge foreign exchange reserves. Higher salaries and better organized trade unions in Taiwan , together with the reduction of the Taiwanese export quotas meant that the bigger Taiwanese companies moved their production to China and Southeast Asia. The civil society in a now developed country, wanted democracy, and the rejection of the KMT dictatorship was bigger day by day.

Two aspects must be remembered: the KMT was on the center of the structure and controlled the process, and that the structure was a net made of relations between the enterprises, between the enterprises and the State, between the enterprises and the global market thanks to trade companies and the international economic exchanges. According to economist Paul Krugman , the rapid growth was made possible by increases in capital and labor but not an increase in efficiency.

In other words, the savings rate increased and work hours were lengthened, and many more people, such as women, entered the work force. Dwight Perkins and others cite certain methodological flaws in Krugman and Alwyn Young's research, and suggest that much of Taiwan's growth can be attributed to increases in productivity.

These productivity boosts were achieved through land reform, structural change urbanization and industrialization , and an economic policy of export promotion rather than import substitution. Economic growth has become much more modest since the late s. A key factor to understand this new environment is the rise of China, offering the same conditions that made possible, 40 years ago, the Taiwan Miracle a quiet political and social environment, cheap and educated workers, absence of independent trade unions. To keep growing, the Taiwanese economy must abandon its workforce intensive industries, which cannot compete with China , Vietnam or other sub-developed countries, and keep innovating and investing in information technology.

Since the s, Taiwanese companies have been permitted to invest in China , and a growing number of Taiwanese businessmen are demanding easier communications between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. One major difference with Taiwan is the focus on English education.

Mirroring Hong Kong and Singapore , the ultimate goal is to become a country fluent in three languages Taiwanese ; Mandarin , the national language of China , Singapore and Taiwan ; and English , becoming a bridge between East and West. However, many financial analysts estimate such concerns are based upon mirror-imaging of the Western model and do not take into account the already proven Asian Tiger model. Yet, recently, credit card debt has become a major problem, as the ROC does not have an individual bankruptcy law.

Taiwan also remains undeveloped in some sectors, such as the lack of a bond market, a role that has been filled by small entrepreneur-oriented investment or direct investment by foreign persons. Generally, transportation infrastructure is very good and continues to be improved, mainly in the west side of the island.

Many infrastructure improvements are currently being pursued, such as the first rapid transit lines opening in Kaohsiung in and a doubling in size of Taipei's rapid transit system by now underway; the country's highways are very highly developed and in good maintenance and continue to be expanded, especially on the less developed and less populated east coast, and a controversial electronic toll system has recently been implemented.

The completion of the Taiwan High Speed Rail service connecting all major cities on the western coast, from Taipei to Kaohsiung is considered to be a major addition to Taiwan's transportation infrastructure. The ROC government has chosen to raise private financing in the building of these projects, going the build-operate-transfer route, but significant public financing has still been required and several scandals have been uncovered. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the completion of these projects will be a big economic stimulus, just as the subway in Taipei has revived the real estate market there.

Taiwan continues to rely heavily on its technology sector, a specialist in manufacturing outsourcing. Recent developments include moving up the food chain in brand building and design.

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Taiwan also wants to move into the biotechnology sector, the creation of fluorescent pet fish and a research-useful fluorescent pig [8] being two examples. Taiwan is also a leading grower of orchids. Taiwan's information technology IT and electronics sector has been responsible for a vast supply of products since the s. Debate on opening " Three Links " with the People's Republic of China were completed in , with the security risk of economic dependence on PR China being the biggest barrier.

By decreasing transportation costs, it was hoped that more money will be repatriated to Taiwan and that businesses will be able to keep operations centers in Taiwan while moving manufacturing and other facilities to mainland China. Taiwan hopes to become a major operations center in East Asia.

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While China already has international free trade agreements FTA with numerous countries through bilateral relations and regional organizations, the "Beijing factor" has led to the deliberate isolation of Taiwan from potential FTAs. The opposition contended [28] that the trade pact would hinder the competency of SMEs, which encompassed President Donald Trump pulled out of the trade deal earlier in the year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of rapid economic growth in Taiwan, as one of the Four Asian Tigers.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Taiwan portal. Labour History 85 Nov : 92 pars. The Myth of Asia's Miracle. Nov Retrieved Journal of Animal Science. National Development Council. A Political Explanation of Economic Growth.

Harvard University Asia Center. China Perspectives. The Economist. Taiwan and China: Fitful Embrace.

We did not come here to do this. We were told we were here to serve and protect, to ensure peace.

Mining, Society, and a Sustainable World

Sometimes, when South African capital flows elsewhere in Africa, it carries the baggage of its nation of origin. But even that was an improvement over the —11 period, when local TNCs pulled in only a third of what foreigners took out. Another continual threat to the continent is ever more frenetic mining and petroleum extraction, notwithstanding falling prices, as a result of state subsidies.

In , the G20 proposed a Compact with Africa CwA to assure state support for so-called public-private partnerships across the continent, and to attract institutional investors with state guarantees. In any case, to use public money to protect private investment would equal to taunting the African populations.

This can easily be understood only from the perspective of colonization or neoliberal exploitation. This is quite serious when we know that some African leaders hold fortunes outside their countries, to the benefit of Western banks. Electricity generation is overwhelmingly biased towards projected mining and smelting needs, although the case of the parastatal mining firm Eskom, in South Africa is illustrative, as demand for its product fell at least 5 percent in late , once adverse economic conditions forced mine shafts and foundries to close.

In , Eskom suffered regular brownouts, but after winter ended, a substantial surplus developed, leading the company to announce major coal-fired power station closures in Even the World Bank admits that 88 percent of Sub-Saharan African countries suffered net negative wealth accumulation in For example, grassroots activists critical of diamond extraction in eastern Zimbabwe, oil in Nigeria, and coal, platinum, and titanium in South Africa regularly insist on leaving resources in the ground.

Such a strategy was attempted in the Ecuadoran Yasuni National Park, and while it did not succeed in the short run —13 , it deserves to be revitalized, as a means of compensating historically exploited fossil fuel-rich countries. Finally, contemporary African political economy and ecology are plagued by the destructive trio of land grabs, militarization, and climate change. The most immediate threats are those affecting the African peasantry, especially women and those in areas attractive to foreign investors.

Already small farmers are being displaced in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and elsewhere as a result of land grabs by Middle Eastern countries, India, South Africa, and China. Climate change will affect the most vulnerable Africans in the poorest countries, who already suffer extreme stress from war and displacement in West Africa, the Great Lakes, and the Horn of Africa. There are various ways to measure this power, including police statistics, journalistic accounts, and business executive surveys.

According to research by scholars at the universities of Sussex and Texas, protest incidents rose dramatically in —11 and have stayed at remarkably high levels in many African cities. In , the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data database recorded scores of protests especially those that turned violent, typically facing police repression in Cairo and Alexandria, Mogadishu, Nairobi, the cities and towns on the Gulf of Guinea—especially in Nigeria—and in the four largest South African cities: Johannesburg-Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth.

In , dozens of protests broke out in these cities. Tunis, Algiers, and Cairo each saw more than a hundred protests.

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In —16, the continent witnessed even more intense protests across northern Africa, Nigeria, and South Africa. In addition, southern Africa witnessed high levels of resistance in Harare, Kinshasa, and Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Zambia and Madagascar, where the capitals of Lusaka and Antananarivo recording substantial increases compared to West African protests were led by Nigerians, but there were many other scattered sites of unrest in the Gulf of Guinea.

Although the counter-revolution had since prevailed in most of these countries, the activists were not deterred from expressing grievances. State repression has accordingly intensified in many countries as a response to the protest upsurge.

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The African Development Bank, the World Bank, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development also measure protests with data based upon Reuters and Agence France Press reports, and in observed that higher wages and better working conditions consistently ranked as the main motives for protests in recent years. Both Tunisia and Egypt generated such intense revolutionary bursts of energy because their independent labor movements were also ascendant.

With GDP growth slowing to just 1. IMF austerity and subsequent riots spread across the continent during the s, and to some extent catalyzed democratization movements during the early s, but mainly failed to establish durable liberal political regimes.

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With the spoils of exuberant commodity markets accruing to unaccountable elites, another intense protest wave began in , sparked in northern Africa by increasingly urgent economic grievances. However, an old problem arises. And as a final clarion call for a radical reimagining of African political economy, there is the political-ecological imperative to restructure the fossil fuel-addicted sectors of the economy, as the world necessarily moves toward post-carbon systems.

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Thank you very much. Topics: Imperialism , Inequality Places: Africa.


Patrick Bond is a professor of political economy at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. The Struggle for Shelter. The Russians Are Coming, Again.